~ Contents ~ Writing ~ Topic 1~06 ~ Community ~
TLW ~ English Writing Basics ~ Structures and Forms
Vocabulary: Look up, translate, and talk about the words. Add your own words to the list.
4) online (social media)
5) local (business)
6) events (festivals)
~ How to Make a Lesson ~ Procedures ~
1) To begin with, as a class, in groups, in pairs, or by yourself, look up, talk about, and practice the vocabulary
2) Then, begin to make sentences relating to the topic (assisted by students, the teacher, or the internet)
3) After that, organize your sentences into a paragraph (use the information below and/or consult others)
4) Next, proofread your text to identify questions/errors ~ Remember, mistakes are a way for us to learn
5) Finally, read your text to the class. Give and receive feedback from the teacher and other students
(You may wish to rewrite your text or prefer to move on to the next topic. Enjoy the process)
To begin, every sentence has a subject and predicate:
1) The subject tells who or what the sentence is about: The restaurant, The lobster, My friend from Spain.
2) The predicate tells what the subject is or does: The restaurant is popular, The lobster is fresh, My friend loves lobster.
1) Main or Independent Clause
expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence
2) Subordinate or Dependent Clause
does not express complete thought and depends on the Main Clause to express complete thought
A sentence having a subordinate clause must have a main clause
Exercise: As a class, in groups, or in pairs, create and identify both types of clauses.
Types of sentences:
1) Simple: Contains a single, independent clause.
I doní»t eat green eggs and ham.
2) Compound: Contains two independent clauses that are joined by a conjunction (but, or, and, so, because).
Many people came to the party, so we had to go to the liquor store.
3) Complex: Contains an independent clause plus one or more dependent clauses.
(A dependent clause starts with a subordinating conjunction: that, because, while, although, where, if)
Paper is good for taking notes, although computers are the best tools.
Although computers are the best tools, paper is good for taking notes.
Note: When the subordinate clause follows the independent clause, no comma is needed
unless the clause expresses contrast or exception (although, while, whereas).
1) The Topic Sentence expresses the main idea and the meaning of a paragraph.
It functions as the parents in a family of sentences.
2) Supporting Sentences provide additional information in strong support of the main idea.
They function as older brothers or sisters that show respect for and obey the main ideas of their parents.
3) Detail Sentences are small bits of information or facts relating to a specific supporting sentence.
This is similar to a younger brother or sister following an older one's example or trying to help in some way.
4) A Closing Sentence (or conclusion/summary statement) provides closure to the paragraph.
Giving closure is like a person saying goodbye in a proper way: a visitor or a friendly aunt or uncle.
Exercise: As a class, in groups, or in pairs, create a paragraph using the four sentence types above.
1) Narrative Writing ~ Tells a story ~ It usually follows a sequence of events and is written in the first person.
It can be fiction or non-fiction. Example: a What I Did Last Summer writing assignment.
2) Descriptive Writing ~ Provides a vivid picture ~ The goal is to help the reader picture in their mindí»s eye.
Ití»s like painting a picture with words. Descriptive language is very detailed. Example: describing a photo.
3) Persuasive Writing ~ Expresses an opinion ~ It provides arguments as to why this opinion is correct and
tries to convince the reader. It often mentions the opposing view but provides statistics, facts or proof
that supports the opinion held. Example: Why Uniforms Are Good (or Why Uniforms Are Bad).
4) Expository Writing ~ Focuses on the facts ~ The goal is to provide explanations, information or definitions.
There are no opinions, just clear, hard facts. Example: a Wikipedia entry.
Exercise: As a class, in groups, or in pairs, create a paragraph using one of the four paragraph types above.
Links for further study
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